Pork is a frequently consumed red meat that provides substantial amounts of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients to the diet. Its role in human nutrition and health is controversial, and a plethora of data exist in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Therefore, we conducted a scoping review of clinical and population-based studies to assess the effects of pork consumption on human nutrition and health. Results are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. Data were extracted from 86 studies, including 16 randomized controlled trials, 1 uncontrolled trial, 7 cohort studies, 4 nonrandomized controlled trials, 4 case-cohort and nested case-control studies, 33 case-control studies, and 21 cross-sectional studies. Intervention studies were conducted in healthy individuals and were short (< 1 mo) to moderate (1 to 6 mo) in duration. The effect of pork intake on patients’ nutrient status was the most commonly assessed outcome. Most observational studies assessed the effect of pork on cancer incidence, but no studies assessed the effects of pork on cognition or inflammation/oxidative stress. No interventional studies explored diabetes mellitus risk, and only 1 study assessed cancer risk associated with pork consumption. Several micronutrients in pork, including zinc, iron, selenium, choline, thiamin, and vitamins B6 and vitamin B12 , are thought to influence cognitive function, and this may prove to be an exciting area of emerging research. To date, there is a dearth of high-quality randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of pork intake on disease risk factors and outcomes. The scientific literature contains mostly observational studies, a large majority being case-controlled and cross-sectional analyses. Of note, there is a lack of studies examining isolated effects of processed pork intake on human health. Future clinical trials should address the role of pork consumption in health outcomes, intermediate outcomes, and validated biomarkers.