In this study, we systematically synthesized scientific evidence on pork consumption in relation to body weight and composition among adults. Methods: We performed a keyword search using Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect size of pork consumption on body weight and composition.
Overall, 12 studies met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review. Among the experimental studies without daily total energy intake restrictions, pork intake was associated with a reduction in body weight by 0.86 kg (95% CI = 0.17-1.55) and body fat percentage by 0.77% (95% CI = 0.11%-1.43%); pork intake was not associated with change in lean mass. Among the experimental studies with energy restrictions, pork intake was associated with a reduction in body weight by 5.56 kg (95% CI = 0.55-10.59), lean mass by 1.50 kg (95% CI = 1.39-1.62), and fat mass by 6.60 kg (95% CI = 6.42-6.79). Among the observational studies, pork intake was not associated with overweight/obesity.
Findings on pork consumption in relation to body weight/composition differed by study design. Future experimental studies using representative samples are warranted to examine the effect of fresh/lean pork consumption on body weight and composition in the general population and by subgroups.